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Exterior aerospace coating systems serve both decorative and protective functions, providing airline branding and differentiation while offering resistance to corrosion, erosion, hydraulic fluid, and weathering degradation. As the structural materials, production systems, environmental regulations, and airline expectations that impact airplane design and build have evolved, so too have the technologies for finishing the exteriors. An overview of the materials and processes currently used to paint commercial airplanes will be presented, along with a discussion of some of the significant changes in recent years in response to drivers such as composite surfaces, faster production rates, longer maintenance and repaint cycles, and increasing complexity of livery designs. Looking to the future, technical challenges and opportunities for innovation in painting commercial airplanes will be summarized as related to production efficiency, performance, customization, and environment, health and safety.
Dr. Jill Seebergh is a Boeing Senior Technical Fellow with expertise in Coating Materials and Processes, including adhesion and interface science, colloidal science, and multifunctional coatings. In her current role within Boeing Research & Technology, she provides leadership to develop and implement chemical technologies that improve safety, reduce manufacturing flow time, reduce environmental impact, and improve aircraft performance. She also serves as the Senior Technical Fellow for the Environment and Safety Domain, which is one of eight focused technology domains that comprise the company’s Enterprise Technology Strategy.
Dr. Seebergh received a B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering from Lehigh University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering from the University of Washington. She represents Boeing on the International Advisory Board of the IntAIRCOAT International Forum on Aircraft and Aerospace Coatings and is a member of the Editorial Review Board for the Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. In her free time, she enjoys hiking, skiing, traveling, and participating in a variety of STEM outreach activities in the Seattle area.
Low temperature coatings have become more desired in the automotive world due to the need for light-weighting of vehicles, and the requirement to include more diverse materials to meet the restrictive emissions stated in the CAFÉ Standards of 2025. This work describes the development of a dual layer solventborne system that employs catalyst migration to obtain lower temperature cure. More active resins and ‘hotter’ catalysts can be used since the catalysts are formulated into the adjacent layer where they are not active. The catalysts become active once they migrate across the basecoat-clearcoat interface. This novel approach has been designed into a 1K–1K system that relies on migration to obtain sufficient cure. It has been shown that migration of catalysts are facile within the system using standard spray process methods, achieving cure at 100°C.
Dr. Lisa Jean Harlow obtained her Doctorate in Chemistry with emphasis in Inorganic and Physical Chemistry from Michigan State University in 2014 and her Bachelor’s of Science in Physics and Chemistry from the University of Nebraska.
Dr. Harlow joined BASF in February of 2015, where she held roles in the General Motors Annual Color Program group and then transitioned to be a key member of a launch team for the conversion of a General Motors plant from a competitor’s product to BASF technology.
In April of 2016, she transferred into the OEM Coatings Product Development group where as Project Manager, lead a global development team focusing on a novel approach to achieve low bake automotive OEM coatings. Her success in this technology development has generated a lot of customer and industry interest, recently cumulating in a strategic collaboration with a key OEM automaker, now taking this technology approach to a new level.
Co-authored by Gabriela Patrick, Toyota Motor North America
The atomization energy in the rotary bell is provided by the high-speed rotation and the centrifugal forces associated with it. Accordingly, the mechanisms controlling atomization and droplet diameters depend mainly on the rotating speed, the diameter of the bell cup, and the paint properties and flow rate. Compressed air is used as the shaping air (SA) to transport the paint droplets to the target surface. This presentation investigates the impact of the temperature of the shaping air on paint transfer efficiency (TE) and coating appearance.
The objective is to quantify the benefit of controlled shaping air temperature in an Electrostatic Rotary Bell Sprayer (ERBS). The results show observable improvements in TE and appearance.
Nelson Akafuah is the Associate Director of the Institute of Research for Technology Development (IR4TD) at the University of Kentucky.
Nelson obtained a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of Kentucky in Lexington, KY, an Executive MBA from Strayer University, an MS degree in mechanical engineering from the University of New Orleans, and a BS degree in Mechanical engineering from the University of Science and Technology, in Kumasi, Ghana.
He has worked as a project engineer at KITE, in Kumasi, Ghana, as a mechanical engineer at General Electric Power Systems in Schenectady, NY, and he served as a post-Doctoral Scholar in the department of mechanical engineering at the University of Kentucky.
Akafuah research interest includes: non-intrusive inspection and evaluation of materials sub-surface integrity; quantitative evaluation of coated surface attributes, appearance, and integrity (thickness, adhesion); and droplet transport and behavior in spray applications.
Jet black has always been a desirable color for automobiles. Few colors will elicit the emotion that a high gloss jet black finish can. We all know the term. Do we really know what defines jet black? Do we really know it if we see it? How do we achieve this sought after appearance? Formulators in the automotive industry are well aware just how difficult it is to achieve a high quality jet black finish. This talk will explore several factors that influence the development of a high quality jet black finish. There is much more to the challenge beyond pigment dispersion.
Brent Laurenti is currently the End Use Manager – Transportation in North America for BYK. He has over 23 years of experience in the coatings industry with a strong focus on automotive finishes. He started his coatings journey at Red Spot Paint & Varnish focusing on the development of clear-coats. He then moved to NPA Automotive as an on-site technical service representative assigned to the Toyota Motor Manufacturing facility in Princeton, Indiana. Brent then moved to ECKART for 16 years where he held numerous positions including a variety of technical and commercial roles. He was promoted to Product Manager for Aluminum & Zinc Pigment for North America in 2014. In late 2016 Brent transferred within the ALTANA family to BYK where he coordinates technical support for the automotive and aerospace industries.
Rotary bell cup atomization is the primary approach to apply coating on the surface of the car body. The appearance of the final finish is greatly affected by the characteristic of the spray and the droplet transferring process. Simulation of the droplet transferring process allows a deeper understanding towards the process, and provides a virtual tool that is capable of reducing design cycle and cost. Difficulties arise due to the highly unsteady and multiphase nature of the field, as well as the tight coupling between the droplets and the flow/electric field. A coupled unsteady Lagrangian model has been developed in the past, but can be computationally expensive. In this work, we developed a steady state Lagrangian model, by adopting an iterative approach to solve for the quasi-steady state solution. Two way coupling is achieved between the particles and the continuous field, while the computational cost being greatly reduced. Comparisons between the results from the unsteady model and steady model is shown, where the steady state model gives satisfactory results at a reduced cost. Droplet trajectory and distribution on the target under the effect of shaping force from both the air and electric field are also discussed.
Wanjiao Liu is currently a Research Scientist in Ford Research and Innovation Center. She joined Ford in 2015 in the area of simulating fluid and transport process during car painting. She has worked on research and development in simulations of spray and atomization, electrodeposition and other multiphysics processes related to paint processes over the past 8 years in both academic and industry. Prior to joining Ford she worked in Wagner Spray Tech Corp. as a R&D engineer on advanced spray nozzle development. She gained her bachelor’s degree in Engineering Mechanics from Beihang University in Beijing, China and Ph.D. on Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota, Twin Cities.
Paint quality metrics important to the customer include not only gloss, DOI, and orange peel, but also color uniformity and color harmony across the entire vehicle. A number of challenges impact the standardization of paint color harmony across the supply chain, including dimensionally complex designs, the same models being produced at different locations, and off-line painted add-on parts being produced at different suppliers. These challenges require the use of objective measurement tools for color process control and improved color harmony. The Master Certified Standard (MCS), a digital representation of a physical panel representing the center of the distribution of certified visual masters, provides a single binding reference for color measurement across all users (paint shop, paint supplier, and add-on parts suppliers). This MCS has been used to launch a color data sharing program, where color position and metallic influence at all angles is measured at both the paint shop and the fascia supplier BEFORE parts are shipped to the assembly plant. Color data sharing allows for an assessment of match to the MCS earlier in the production process for both the body and fascia, as well as body-to-fascia color harmony, thereby improving the opportunity for good color harmony for the vehicle and the customer.
Linda Gerhardt is the Global Lead for Paint Quality at General Motors, where her responsibilities include paint surface appearance, color harmony, instrumentation, competitive benchmarking, and paint warranty. She holds a PhD in Chemical Engineering with a minor in Mathematics from Wayne State University, a Master of Science in Chemical Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, and a Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering from Wayne State University. Outside of work, Dr. Gerhardt has been the engineer mentor for the St. John Rochester DiscoverE Future City STEM program for 10 years, during which her team of middle schoolers has been honored with 8 Michigan Regional Championships and 2 National Championships.
Lee Dzsudzsak is the lead for paint appearance, colour harmony, instrumentation, and benchmarking of colour at Polycon. Lee comes from a chemical background, starting with Inmont in 1977, which supplied refinish automotive paints to all of North America and was later bought out by BASF, where he worked in the manufacturing of paint and as a research lab technician matching standards produced by the major car companies. In 1998, Lee took an account managers position with BASF, doing on site servicing of colour for part suppliers in Southern Ontario. In 2004 he accepted a position at Polycon to manage incoming paint quality and dealing with colour approvals and customers.
The introduction of lightweight materials into new vehicle designs is increasing due to more stringent fuel-efficiency requirements and the need to extend the range of electric vehicles. The use of lightweight materials brings new challenges for corrosion protection and corrosion testing requirements. For example, aluminum alloys are subject to filiform corrosion. Filiform corrosion is managed in other aluminum-intensive industries such as aerospace, but this type of corrosion has not been fully addressed using existing automotive coatings systems. It is also not addressed by routine automotive coating test standards. Another challenge is the increased potential for galvanic corrosion. The industry predicts that lightweighting goals will be achieved by implementing a mix of lightweight materials as opposed to a single material solution. New approaches to isolate dissimilar lightweight materials and prevent galvanic corrosion are under investigation. These solutions must be low cost, robust to typical OEM finishing processes, and have minimal environmental impact.
In this talk, we will discuss the materials, processes, and test methods under investigation at PPG that are necessary to implement lightweight material vehicle construction. This includes new corrosion protection solutions, such as novel cleaning, pretreatment, and electrocoat technologies. We will discuss the breadth of considerations made for the processes required, such as oven temperatures, joining methods, and the impact of high volumes of these materials on the typical pretreatment and coating process. Further, we will discuss predictive corrosion test methods under evaluation to more rapidly understand the long term durability of lightweight materials in real-world use.
Brian Okerberg received his Bachelor of Science degree in Materials Science & Engineering from Virginia Tech in 2000 and a Ph.D. in Materials Science & Engineering from Virginia Tech in 2005. He completed his post-doctoral studies as a National Research Council (NRC) researcher in the Polymer Division at the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) in 2008. He has spent the past nine years developing corrosion resistant pretreatment and electrocoat technologies for PPG Industries. He has co-authored 10 academic publications and is a named inventor on 2 patents. Brian is currently leading a team of researchers in the Substrate Protection Electrocoat group, at PPG’s Coating Innovation Center in Allison Park, PA.
Vernon Comeaux is the Manufacturing Engineering Paint Materials, Quality and Business Group Senior Manager for Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, where his responsibilities include providing strategic direction for all Paint Shop materials, process implementation, and Paint Shop quality improvements driven through World Class Manufacturing (WCM) and World Class Technology (WCT) concepts and key principles.
Additionally, Vernon brings a materials background from his 19 years at E. I. DuPont, where he provided strategic direction at both regional and global levels of operations and sales and marketing. Vernon’s career has been focused on polymer material, material application, and developing proficiencies in the concepts of continuous flow manufacturing and enhanced quality systems.
Vernon holds a Bachelor of Science in Engineering from the University of Texas. He also has Six Sigma Black Belt Certification.
Rudy Pomper is the Manufacturing Engineering Vehicle Systems Paint Materials and Facility Senior Manager for General Motors Company. GM is a leader in global vehicle design, manufacturing and sales. In this role, Rudy is responsible for:
During his General Motors career, Rudy has held positions of increasing responsibility in paint and sealer material development, new paint process development, implementation and operations, advance vehicle development, and paint strategic direction at both regional and global levels, including overseas assignments in Asia.
Rudy holds a Masters in Business Administration from Wayne State University and a Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering from the University of Michigan.
Manager of Paint Materials & Quality Strategies where his responsibilities include the global development and release of sustainable coating material systems and quality. His thirty four years in the automotive coatings industry have been focused on product engineering of improved material chemistries that advance customer value through cost, quality, and environmental performance.
Prior to joining Ford Motor Company, Tim was the Senior Project Leader for product development at BASF, where he led the group responsible for the development of new colors, and new material technologies.
Former Paint Technical Leader PMC. PMC responsibilities included Design/Specification of process, equipment and systems. Leadership of Paint team through development, trial production and mass production.
Currently Paint Strategy Leader Honda Engineering North America. Responsibilities include 2030/2050 planning and establishment of long term technical direction.
Jim Ohlinger started his career in automotive coatings in 1982 as a contract engineering student in the GM (Fisher Body) Paint Lab while finishing his B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering at Wayne State University. After moving to PPG in 1984, he has held positions in technical and on various customer teams in engineering and managerial roles. He is currently Product Engineering Manager for all Decorative Coatings (sprayable products) and supervises the Global Product Managers for PPG’s Product Management group located in Troy, MI. He is responsible for managing the new product development process and new product pipeline with Research and Development. He frequently interfaces with OEM’s on a global basis on all facets of material development and process and facility design.
As consumers continue to extend the amount of time they own a vehicle, OEMs are driven to provide ever more durable coatings to maintain the aesthetic and protective functions these coatings provide. Resistance to scratch and mar damage is an area that seen dramatic improvement as paint technologies have evolved, and deficiencies in durability of these coatings may take years to appear. Given the high quality of current automotive coatings technologies, there is a persistent need to develop fundamental methodologies and analysis that enable materials innovation.
In this work, we present several methods to apply and quantify mechanical damage at different length scales and intensities. Micro and nano-scratch techniques are used in combination with industry standard methods: Amtec-Kistler car-wash and crockmeter, to quantify performance differences across several clearcoat/basecoat combinations under different scratch conditions. Mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the coatings were also studied using a variety of thermomechanical methods to better understand the failure mechanisms associated with plastic deformation and fracture at different scratch scales. The information gathered from these testing protocols is used to analyze coatings performance in terms of fundamental materials properties.
Dr. Andrew Detwiler joined Eastman in 2011 to work on applications development for thermoplastic extrusion, injection molding, and 3D Printing efforts. In 2016 he moved to lead the coatings and inks applications development team supporting automotive, industrial, metal packaging, and architectural applications. Most recently, Andrew has been tasked with building a coatings applications research group focused on defining structure-process-property relationships for new molecules across all coatings segments. Andrew has presented technical work at numerous polymer industry events and conferences. He holds a BA in Spanish and a BS in Polymer Science and Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, and he earned a PhD in Polymer Science and Engineering from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 2011.
Thermally-responsive materials have been prepared in a multitude of ways for a wide variety of applications. In particular, a soybean based coating with thermally responsive Diels-Alder linkages has been prepared following an automotive 2-component formulation. The resulting coatings displayed the capability to be healed by a thermal stimulus after physical deformation. Various curing agents were employed, and resulted in variation of scratch resistance and re-healablity. Different thermally responsive soybean resins were synthesized to have varying amounts of reversible and nonreversible linkages when incorporated into the coating. The concept of controlling topology with dynamic linkages was also utilized to induce changes in polymer architecture. A variety of compounds were prepared and integrated into polymeric substrates. Upon the application of a thermal stimulus, the retro-DA was induced and polymer topology was manipulated with the efforts of creating new and tunable polymer additives for coating applications.
Prof. Costanzo graduated from Carnegie Mellon University in 2001 with a BS in Chemistry. As an undergraduate, he worked for Prof. Krzysztof Matyjaszewski for three years preparing materials via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. He then received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Timothy Patten at University of California at Davis, where he focused upon polymer and nanoparticle synthesis. He was awarded a National Research Council Postdoctoral fellowship at the Army Research Laboratory. As a post-doc, he worked in the weapons and materials division developing new materials for wide range of applications. He joined California Polytechnic State University in 2007 and is currently a full Professor. His research focuses upon the development of structure-property relationships by exploiting simple and efficient methodology, such as Diels-Alder chemistry, to create dynamic and stimuli-responsive materials.
Formulators continue to be challenged by legislative demands to reduce emissions, while improving performance and durability of topcoats. Silicone aliphatic polyester resins combine the high chemical and weathering resistance of silicone polymers with the flexibility and adhesion of polyesters. Once cross-linked, these polymers can be formulated to give topcoats with improved corrosion, resistance, impact and scratch resistance. These binders can be used alone or as co-binders in combination with other established acrylic or polyester binders. This paper will review the properties of two novel silicone hybrid resins and their use in topcoats for automotive and vehicles.
Jim Reader graduated from the University of Warwick (UK) in 1988 with a Ph.D. in Chemistry. He joined Air Products and Chemicals in 1998 in Manchester (UK) as a Research Chemist and later an Application Development Chemist for the Epoxy Additives business. He joined the Specialty Additives business in 1996 and has worked in Europe and Asia before becoming a Lead Chemist in Allentown in 2008. Dr. Jim Reader joined Evonik Corporation as a Lead Chemist in January 2017. He has extensive experience in the both the development and application of surfactants and defoamers in many different applications including paints, coatings, graphic arts, adhesives, concrete admixtures and the production of latex gloves. He is an inventor on 1 patent and has written over 20 technical papers. His hobbies include soccer, bowling, tennis and board games.
More and more, automotive OEMs are encountering material cure challenges within their paint shop ovens. This is in part due to the design of modern automobile sheet metal body construction in which efforts are being made to reduce overall vehicle weight through the use of lighter, high-strength alloyed steel and aluminum materials as well as the use of polymer structural insert elements, both of which create localized areas of concentrated thermal mass. Further, compact topcoat coating processes require tightly controlled heating rates as the coating layers are brought up to the cure temperature to prevent defects.
In this presentation, an overview of the cure challenges being encountered in traditional paint shop ovens will be given. An innovative solution for improving cure quality through the use of a lateral-style oven in which the automobile body is heated from the inside-out will be presented. The benefits of this oven concept will be discussed in detail with respect to improving finish quality, improving heating uniformity, reducing overall oven dwell time, and potentially energy savings.
Jim Pakkala is a Senior Engineering Manager at Dürr Systems, Inc. Mr. Pakkala holds a BSME from the University of Michigan Ann Arbor and is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Michigan. Mr. Pakkala has over 21 years of experience in the automotive paint finishing industry where his efforts have led to numerous US and international patents regarding spray booth exhaust system and curing oven design. Mr. Pakkala has been with Dürr Systems, Inc. since 1995. Located in 23 countries, with continuous R&D and energy efficient processes, Dürr is Leading in Production Efficiency.
Automotive OEMs have recently shown interest in digital printing for exterior colorcoat applications. If and when basecoats drops can be precisely positioned over another coating layer, there could be considerable advantages in both process savings and expanded styling capability. With growing experience using new types of Drop-on-Demand (DoD) applicators, Axalta recognizes the need for coordinated development of both paint formulation and applicator design.
In this talk we consider the development of DoD ink jet inks from traditional inks and how formulations had to be developed to meet the needs for digital ink that could be precisely positioned on the substrate using digital application technology while maintaining all its functional properties such as color and durability.
Christian Jackson has over 30 years’ experience in industrial R&D working on ink-jet inks and coatings. He has a PhD in Chemistry from Imperial College of Science and Technology, London and started work with Wyatt Technology Corporation developing light-scattering detectors for polymer and colloid characterization. He then joined DuPont and worked on a wide range of ink-jet related projects for DuPont Digital Printing and then for Fujifilm Imaging Colorants. He has over 40 granted and pending patents on ink jet formulations and printing methods. In 2017 he joined Axalta Coating Systems Research and Development working on new coating formulation challenges.
For many years, two component polyurethane coatings have been utilized in numerous Automotive OEM interior and exterior applications. They have been chosen for these demanding uses due to the unique combination of high performance, efficiency and robust application properties that they exhibit. Formulating polyurethane coatings in most cases starts by choosing the right polyol component which will largely define the performance of the coating system. The role of the hardener is quite often defined only as the crosslinker for this polyol. This can often lead to the misperception that polyisocyanate hardeners do not significantly enhance the overall performance level. Recently, advancements in polyisocyanate crosslinker technologies have been developed which are dispelling this myth. Several innovative polyisocyanate hardeners are highlighted in this presentation, all of which strongly drive performance of coatings in areas such as improved cure response, increased intercoat adhesion, sustainability and scratch resistance/self-healing ability. These new crosslinkers enable the formulator to tailor the performance of coatings to meet the ever increasing demands of the automotive industry.
Scott Grace joined Covestro LLC (formerly Bayer MaterialScience) in 1988. He has experience in various areas within the Coatings, Adhesives & Sealants (CAS) Business Unit, including Technical/Customer Service, Automotive OEM/Refinish, General Industrial Finishes and Architectural/Corrosion Protection. Scott received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry from Washington & Jefferson College in 1988, and a Masters Degree in Colloids, Polymers and Surfaces from Carnegie Mellon University in 1992. He is currently the Segment Head – Automotive Applications for the CAS Application Development team focusing on Coatings and Adhesives for the Automotive market in NAFTA.